Questions

How can a volcano change the face of Earth?

What happens as lava pours out of the surface?

What causes the lava to cool and harden?

An Island is Formed

Volcanoes destroy, but they also create. As they erupt, they change the surface of the Earth.

About 45 years after Krakatoa blew up, some fishermen were passing over the spot where part of the island had been. Suddenly, they heard a roar and saw that the sea was full of rising bubbles.

For the next two years, bubbles rose up, and jets of water sprayed out of the sea. Ash, rocks, and even flames were seen shooting out of the waves.

Finally, a small mound of black rock rose up above the water. It was the tip of a new volcanic island being formed under the sea.

Water

This picture shows how the island was formed. Below the surface of Earth, there is a deep layer of hot melted rock called magma. When a volcano erupts, magma comes up to the surface. When the magma pours out of a hole in the surface, it is called lava. As the lava pours out, it becomes hard. If a lot of lava pours out and hardens, a mountain starts to grow.

Scientists call this new volcanic island "Anak Krakatoa," which means "Son of Krakatoa." Anak Krakatoa is still growing. Today, it is about 1500 feet high.  One day, it may be as big and as bad as its parent used to be.

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